Simulated multileaf collimator tracking for stereotactic liver radiotherapy guided by kilovoltage intrafraction monitoring: Dosimetric gain and target overdose trends
To investigate the potential benefit of multileaf collimator (MLC) tracking guided by kilovoltage intrafraction monitoring (KIM) during stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in the liver, and to understand trends of target overdose with MLC tracking.
Six liver SBRT patients with 2-3 implanted gold markers received SBRT delivered with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in three fractions using daily cone-beam CT setup. The CTV-to-PTV margins were 5 mm in the axial plane and 10 mm in the cranio-caudal directions, and the plans were designed to give minimum target doses of 95% (CTV) and 67% (PTV). The three-dimensional marker trajectory estimated by post-treatment analysis of kV fluoroscopy images acquired throughout treatment delivery was assumed to represent the tumor motion. MLC tracking guided by real-time KIM was simulated. The reduction in CTV D95 (minimum dose to 95% of the clinical target volume) relative to the planned D95 (ΔD95) was compared between actual non-tracking and simulated MLC tracking treatments.
MLC tracking maintained a high CTV dose coverage for all 18 fractions with ΔD95 (mean: 0.2 percentage points (pp), range: -1.7 to 1.9 pp) being significantly lower than for the actual non-tracking treatments (mean: 6.3 pp range: 0.6-16.0 pp) (p = 0.002). MLC tracking of large target motion perpendicular to the MLC leaves created dose artifacts with regions of overdose in the CTV. As a result, the mean dose in spherical volumes centered in the middle of the CTV was on average 2.4 pp (5 mm radius sphere) and 1.3 pp (15 mm radius sphere) higher than planned (p = 0.002).
Intrafraction tumor motion can deteriorate the CTV dose of liver SBRT. The planned CTV dose coverage may be restored with KIM-guided MLC tracking. However, MLC tracking may have a tendency to create hotspots in the CTV.